El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site in southern Mexico and is one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. Tanzend bewegen sich die vier Männer auf den Stamm zu. There are also facilities for workshops, exhibitions, alternative therapies, seminars and ceremonies. Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (2010) | It is an immense acropolis composed of numerous palaces and other civil structures. El Tajin: HISTORY AND CULTURE - See 648 traveler reviews, 816 candid photos, and great deals for Papantla, Mexico, at Tripadvisor. [22] The publication of the pyramid's existence in the Gaceta influenced academic circles in New Spain and Europe, attracting the attention of antiquarians José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez and Ciriaco Gonazlez Carvajal, who wrote about it. Franziskanermissionen in der Sierra Gorda (2003) | [7] Since the 1970s, El Tajin has been the most important archeological site in Veracruz for tourists,[8] attracting 386,406 visitors in 2017. Festungsstadt San Miguel de Allende und Wallfahrtskirche Jesús de Nazareno in Atotonilco (2008) | Nachdem die vier Winde die Erde erreicht haben, begibt sich die Sonne am Stamm oder über eines der Seile auf die Erde nieder. El TajínThe El Tajín archaeological site is located in the municipality of Papantla, in the north-central region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. Die Sonne begrüßt nun die vier Himmelsrichtungen mit ihrem Spiel. [12], El Tajín prospered until the early years of the 13th century, when it was destroyed by fire, presumably started by an invading force believed to be the Chichimecs. These fields not only produced staples such as corn and beans but luxury items such as cacao. The stones, especially around the niches are fitted together as to need a minimum amount of lime and earth mortar. [5] Its best-known monument is the Pyramid of the Niches, but other important monuments include the Arroyo Group, the North and South Ballcourts and the palaces of Tajín Chico. It hosts fairs, conventions and other events, including part of the annual Cumbre Tajín cultural festival which is held in March. El Tajin is located near the coast of eastern Mexico and was an important Mesoamerican centre which flourished between 900 and 1100 CE. It has been determined that this was the city marketplace because of the large plaza space for stalls and for a deity found here that is related to commerce. 1992 wurde El Tajín zum UNESCO-Weltkulturerbe. The stairs are made from a mixture of lime, sand and clay without a stone core. Remnants of this paint can be seen on part of the stairway and on the side facing east toward Building 23. The entire exterior of the building is covered in stepped frets, with these frets arranged to give the appearance as niches. The four end panels have scenes relating to the ritual of the ball game that result in entreaties to the gods. El Tajin, cité préhispanique. [12] The borders of the city's residential areas have not yet been defined but is the entire site is estimated at 2,640 acres (10.7 km2). The rest of the procession consists of warriors holding captives by their hair. [12] German architect Charles Nebel visited the site in 1831 and was the first to graphically and narratively detail the Pyramid of the Niches as well as the nearby ruins of Mapilca and Tuzapan. It had been thrown down from the top of the pyramid in ancient times and broken. [11], While ballcourts are common in Mesoamerica, El Tajin distinguishes itself by having seventeen. The enclosed room is for smaller objects that have been found during the years the site has been explored, most coming from the Pyramid of the Niches. The blood falls into the vat and to refill it with pulque. The city is set in the low rolling mountains that lead from the Sierra Madre Oriental to the Gulf coast near the Tecolutla River. [19], From 600 to 1200 CE, El Tajín was a prosperous city that eventually controlled much of what is now modern Veracruz state. La description est disponible sous licence CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0. He claimed the natives had kept the place secret. Aquädukt von Padre Tembleque (2015), Naturerbe: The differences are a depiction of the moon as a rabbit, the rain god in front of the temple and the level of the liquid in the vat lowered. Variant forms of the god of pulque appear over each of the end panels, suggesting that the drink was an important part of the ritual. The small buildings that surround this pyramid are meant to complement it. [13] The main city is defined by two streams which merge to form the Tlahuanapa Arroyo, a tributary of the Tecolutla River. Die Kleidung der Voladores ist auch heute noch eine rote Hose, ein weißes Hemd, ein rotes Band um die Hüften sowie ein Federkopfschmuck. Under the fourth panel, an older panel was found. In addition, the Danza de los Voladores is enacted at the entrance to the site and is considered a requirement for visitors. This complex was one of the last to be built and it also shows evidence if fire and other damage from the fall of the city. One holds a large knife in his left hand and gestures with his right. [15], Building C was not a temple but its function is not entirely clear. Prähistorische Höhlen von Yagul und Mitla im Tal von Oaxaca (2010) | Jahrhundert v. Chr. Präkolumbische Stadt Teotihuacán (1987) | Der ausgesuchte Baumstamm musste mindestens 25 m hoch und die Seillänge genau abgemessen sein, damit die vier fliegenden Voladores exakt 13 Umkreisungen des Stammes erreichen, welche einen Zeitraum von 52 (4x13) Jahren symbolisieren. The divider in the center is a buttress to hold the fill behind the stairs in place. [6] In total there have been 20 ballcourts discovered at this site, (the last 3 being discovered in March 2013). Otherwise entrance is 48 pesos (c US$4.5 in Mar 2008). At the top, there the temple was located, is a series of stepped merlons which look like medieval European battlements. However, a series of indigenous maps dating from the time of the Spanish conquest, found in nearby Tihuatlan and now known as the Lienzos de Tuxpan, suggest that the city might then have been called “Mictlan” or “place of the dead”, a common denomination for ancient sites whose original names have been lost. Denkmalensemble von Querétaro (1996) | The top of the pyramid contains two platforms, both of which are decorated with stepped frets. Spectators could watch events from Building 5 to the north and Building 6 to the south as well as from stands built on one side of the court. [30], The entrance to the site is located at the south end. Altstadt von Oaxaca und Ruinen von Monte Albán (1987) | It has become the focus of the site because of its unusual design and good state of preservation. Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. The voladores appear every half-hour at the pole and circle erected just outside the main gate. Müller, Frank C. Müller |Date=13.07.2005 |Author=Frank.C. The panels inside were painted with murals, of which only fragments survive. Es wird angenommen, dass entweder die Verlierer oder die Sieger anschließend geköpft wurden, wobei feststeht, dass die rituelle Opferung damals als große Ehre galt. The lower level is adorned with large rectangular panels which appear to have been painted red. It is located in the center of a pyramid complex and consists of a truncated pyramid rising from a platform that is over 32,000 square feet (3,000 m2) in size. The site extends to the northwest where terraces were constructed to place more buildings, mostly for the city's elite. [46] Building A is constructed over older buildings that were buried when this area was filled in, some aspects of the building, like the buttresses been damage due to settling where there are no buildings below. El Tajin - El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site and one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. The original staircase was destroyed then reworked into its present form. The main exhibits of the roofed area are the fragments recovered from the Building of the Columns, with a number partially reassembled. One has survived mostly intact and is now in the site museum. To further this effect, the inside of the frets were painted dark red and the exterior portion light blue, similar to turquoise. 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