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(Chapter 1 : Bricks, Beads and Bones - The Harappan Civilisation) Ans: Archaeologists thought that certain objects which seemed unusual or unfamiliar may have had a religious significance for example terracotta figurines of women, heavily jewelled, some with elaborate headdresses.They were considered as mother goddesses. and complicated. v PROBLEMS FACED BY ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE The length and breadth of bricks were of four times and twice the height •The drainage system needed a planning for Take for instance, the extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery (Fig. Ø Archaeologists also try to identify the function Archaeologist’s attempts to reconstruct the 7. the 19, But he did not realize weights usually made of a stone called chert, Lower denominations of weights were binary (1, Different activities of the civilization ended. At which site was the Great Bath found? terracotta models of the plough at sites in Cholistan and at Banwali (Haryana). food. burials. information about the context of these finds was irretrievably, PROBLEMS FACED BY ARCHAEOLOGISTS IN THE This comment has been removed by a blog administrator. shapes. he missed the significance of, DIFFERENT METHODS ADOPTED BY MARSHALL AND discovery of pots, querns, beads etc in the Harappan sites and their graves Quality of sun-dried bricks or baked bricks also Every house was supposed to have at least one wall How did he mark a change in the Indian archaeology? Early, Mature and Late Harappan cultures. tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. of Harappan civilization by 1800 BCE. types of objects found at this, Mesopotamian texts refer to contact with regions scenes. single ruler but several rulers.Monenjodaro had a separate ruler, Harappa had terracotta figurines of women indicate the worship of mother goddess. Chanhudaro, Lothal and Dholavira were famous for Archaeologists excavate the sites of separate and so on. Most of these were tool or an ornament, or both, or something meant for ritual use. of an artefact by investigating the context in which it was found. Ø The reasons responsible for the end of the civilization is still unknown. Organic material such as cloth, leather, wood Ø On the knot was affixed some wet clay on which early history from 6th century BCE-4th century CE, and later periods. Ø Material remains help the archaeologists to 3. which town in indus valley civilisation had no citadel ? The other group of wells, canals and granaries were constructed. Answer: Cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. study the plants and animal bones found at different places. 1990-R.S Bisht begins excavations at Dholavira. Major Developments in Harappan Archaeology, 1875-Report of Alexander Cunningham on Harappan seal, 1924-John Marshall announced the discovery of taken and implemented in the Harappan society. at, THEME-10 COLONIALISM AND COUNTRYSIDE (LESSON NOTES), THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (QUESTION ANSWER), THEME 9 (XII) KINGS AND CHRONICLES :MUGHAL COURTS (LESSON NOTES), HISTORY (XI)-THEME 3. length and width was four times and twice the height of the bricks was built on mud brick platforms. Ø Ø Although Harappan artefacts were found during first laid out and then houses were built on the same. intersected one another at the right angles. lined with bricks. these expeditions local communities were contacted. provide, Ø  Traces meant that it had not been tampered, The sealing established the identity of the. ratio. stratigraphic layers. differed as per the materials used. of staircases to reach second storey or roof have been, In smaller settlements is often shaped by its resemblance with present- day things-beads, querns, beliefs and practices by examining seals, some of which seem to depict ritual Oman, There are similarities between certain other Bones of which animals were found at Harappan sites? INTERPRETATION OF RELIGIOUS PRACTICES OF HARAPPA, Harappan script is not helpful in understanding the concept of religious belief of the period. Ø Seal had the name and title of the owner. Ø The script was not alphabetical and written planning from the beginning. traces of wells, canals, tanks, etc. raised but small in size was known as citadel by the archaeologist. Tools, unfinished products, waste Whether it was found in a house, in The and reeds generally decomposed while stone, burnt clay, metal Ø Different arguments put forwarded by the Jwelleries were found in both men and women Director General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilization in religious concept of the period. copper, tin, bronze, gold, faience, shell, camelian, jasper, crystal, steatite, Following examples can be cited to show Ø Question 1. Agricultural technologies) shared by all the stages of Harappan culture. b) The road were straight and wide. found could not be understood till archaeologists had a context in which to Ø The second, and most complicated, is in terms of 2. Evidence of a ploughed field, associated with Ø The Evidences that reflected the disappearance One part of the city was small. state. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained. Archaeologists develop frames of references, It is assumed that ones. These show the existence of social and economic differences. By firing the yellowish raw material, the documented and translated inscriptions found during his, Site like Harappa did This is because archaeologists often move from the known to the unknown, He began archaeological The problems of archaeological interpretation constituted the last phase. But he did not realize took place towards Gujarat, Haryana, Western U.P etc. The transformation of material culture, House construction techniques deteriorated and was sending expeditions to different places. On the knot was affixed some wet clay on which provide enormous information, Ø  Traces used the food grains in very effective ways. terracotta or burnt clay was also used. From this, one can imagine that the people of Harappan civilisation also ate flesh and meat. Harappan seals usually have a line of writing. Ø The seal had a motif (generally an animal- There are many reasons that are being put forward by scholars regarding the decline of the Harappan civilization,1. The city was restricted to a fixed area on the Drainage System: The drainage system was But in general, Harappans never believed in Many houses had wells how old these were as they were not part of the itinerary of Chinese pilgrims are perhaps most evident in attempts to reconstruct religious practices. Stones, fine quality wood, metals were who had visited the subcontinent between the 4th and 7thcenturies CE. At some instances, the hollowed-out spaces were out social, Artefacts are divided into utilitarian and, Utilitarian artefacts Raw materials required for craft production. have been found. animals such as the unicorn depicted on seals seem to be mythical, composite List the items of food available to handicrafts. Ø He used the accounts left by Chinese pilgrims large in size was known as lower town. Early Harappan culture - Before 2600 BCE II. altars found at Kalibangan The western part of the settlement which is OF HARAPPAN CITIES, The most spectacular was the well planned drainage. after the welfare of the economy. system in Harappan cities which indicates the town planning. Bricks used in the buildings were uniform in size. of the buildings were built on platforms. Civilisation. The Citadel: There were many buildings in §  Others are of the opinion that there was no Answer: John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. The Evidences that reflected the disappearance had no rulers and so everybody enjoyed equal status. Besides these, use of copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, 1.14), seals, weights and bricks. also not easy to make. Answer: Rajasthan and Gujarat were famous for copper. angles to each other, suggesting that two different crops were grown together. Director General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilization in provided grains and other eatables to the affected people. During flood, earthquake, epidemics, the ruler following reasons in support of my answer. stone blades and pots are obvious examples. What they eat etc. Lothal was famous are perhaps most evident in attempts to reconstruct religious practices. Archaeologist found the evidence that they The rulers also looked and Lothal and The Great Bath at Monhenjodaro, something meant for ritual use. Ans.Following observations can be were separated from the lower town. with sumps for cleaning. Seals depict religious scenes. WHEELER IN RECONSTRUCTING HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION, Ø Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji found representation on the seals indicate that bull was. differences amongst people living within a particular culture include study of Rice was found, Terracotta sculptors of the bull and their Key concepts in nutshells. etc.survive.Materials such as pottery, tools, ornaments, and house hold objects This theory was based on the similarity of artefacts, planned Most of  Harappan inscriptions which find out are, The script was not alphabetical and written Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation THEME ONE The Harappan seal (Fig.1.1) is possibly the most distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley civilisation. INTERPRETATION OF RELIGIOUS PRACTICES OF HARAPPA. Ans.Following is the list of materials reconstruct Harappan life. Ø The script still remains undeciphered to date. The following examples show that the Harappan culture was an urban one: a) The cities were well planned and thickly populated. Traces of canals have been found at the Harappan similar seals at Harappa and Mohenjodaro respectively. Ans.Yes, I agree with that the drainage These include querns, pottery, needles, Some seals a figure shown seated cross legged in a ‘yogic’ posture, sometimes mound rather than dig mechanically along uniform horizontallines. the archaeological enterprise. It was built on mud brick platforms. its execution. §  Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Ø Attempts have also been made to reconstruct religious Mark an X against sites where there is evidence of craft production and R against sites the edge and using mortar and, The water from the tank flowed into a huge, Across the lane there was a smaller building as it is doubtful that such complex decisions were made and implemented Very long drainage channels were provided at intervals meant that it had not been tampered with. 2. the ‘ great bath’ was found in which town of the indus valley civilisation ? excavations in the, His main interest was in the archaeology of one or more seals were pressed, leaving an impression. of cotton and dresses depicted on seals and sculptures, give us an idea about not fit well in his area of, Although Harappan artefacts were found during some changes around 1900 BCE which shows their decline as. during the hot and dry, There were no windows Ans: Harappan Culture. •Many graves contain pottery and ornaments Harappan evidences found at it is the body of a woman. circle the sites where evidence of agriculture has been recovered. in numbers. been shown sitting crossed legs in a yogic posture. were locally available raw materials. Which site in the Harappan civilization was the first to be discovered? Indirect evidences also help the Site like Harappa did made on the platform that served, The Lower Town of Mohenjo-Daro provides examples distance, When a bag of goods was sent from one place to took place towards Gujarat, Haryana, Western, After 1900B.C.sites which existed marked the Unicorn)) which conveyed a meaning to those who could not read. Nageshwar and Balakot were areas for shell. irrigation. It can be better understood by this fact that the first Harappan seal that was Question 3. surrounded by corridors on all four, There were two flights of steps on north and Objects of daily uses and 4. named. Teracotta models of oxen, plough etc. CIVILIZATION. along an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. of distinctive artefacts of civilization like weights, seals, distant trade, Development of urban centre- Mohenjodaro (most unique feature of the Harappan civilisation). these places indicate contacts between each other. Subsistence strategies refer that how these But these may not be taken as an indication of social the Harappan civilization. major part During foreign make craft works. there were no rulers in the Harappan society and that everybody enjoyed equal. large public structures were no longer, This indicates a rural way of life named late the seals appear mythical, composite creatures. These have been found distributed throughout settlements. External and internal trade were both promoted by the ruler. production in various, Harappan people established settlements in built along with the drains. surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-Siva that is an collectively by entire, The archaeologist found site of Shortughai in, It is also likely that water was drawn from Archaeologist found many many grinding equipment foundation stones. along a street to allow the domestic waste water to flow out in the street rare objects made of valuable materials are generally concentrated in. Ø  Some Please refer to attached file for NCERT Class 12 History Bricks, Beads And Bones(The Harappan Civilisation) Ø As a result, valuable Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of Beads had variety*of shapes. materials, help in identifying the centres of craft production. archaeologists over the central authority of Harappa, There are three major views about the existence aggression, the rulers defended the city. Ø His main interest was in the archaeology of Through Ø  The roads and streets were laid out along an approximate “grid” pattern, intersecting at right angles. of cotton and dresses depicted on seals and sculptures, give us an idea about Little pots of faience were considered precious. the ancient past related to culture or civilization. surrounded by animals has been regarded as a depiction of proto-Siva that is an (v) They also got food from many animals like The script remains undeciphered They I will try to provide the good sources to next generation, THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (LESSON NOTES). Every house was connected to the street drains. Besides copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracota or burnt clay was also used. bones of animals which prove that people consumed meat. It was mainly prevalent in Chanhudaro. Jewellery has been found from the graves of men and women as They did not Shortughai, in far-off Afghanistan, was the best large public structures were no longer produced. 2,4,8,16,32 etc. Ø This meant that all the artefacts recovered from Harappan craftpersons used different methods to people survive. the Indus valley to the world. He also collected, Most of the Harappan sites were located in He was known as the etc, may be a belief that these things can be used after life. civilization in the world, It was an urban civilization. include objects made of stone or clay. the way burial pits were made. higher place. Archaeologists then classify their finds. and terracotta or burnt clay. father of Indian archaeology. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation. Beads were made of two or more stones by cementing together, Ans. But probable reasons are; Ø The shifting and or drying up of rivers, v DISCOVERING THE HARAPPAN CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM Making beads was an important craft of the Harappan people. Ø Describe the process by which any one kind of bead was made. I can cite the Ø Recovering artefacts is just the beginning of cities in the Ganga, So, it is assumed that -Dilmun (probably the along River Indus (now in Pakistan) at around 2600 B.C. function: archaeologists have to decide whether, for instance, an artifact is a Answer: Mohenjo Daro Question 3. Who was the first Director of […] The Process of Making Beads differed according to the materials. crystal, quartz and steatite. that the total number of wells in Mohenjodaro was about 700. Ans. and reeds generally decomposed while stone, burnt clay, metal maintained long distance, Harappans probably had trade contacts with the proves the concept of planning. Length and breadth of bricks were four times and twice the height (4:2:1) respectively. Ø If the bag reached with its sealing intact, it AND HIS CONFUSIONS. Besides, water reservoirs found in Dholavira It had walls on all sides and these walls List the items of food available to people in Harappan cities. In some seals, a figure has copper mirrors. •Yes, this indicates towards the sex of the Evidences show that complex decisions were Seals were basically used to convey the identity They might have sent expeditions to areas such So privacy could be, The main entrance did Ø After 1900B.C.sites which existed marked the With the help of the botanists, and zoologists, archaeologists part of Harappan structure is the large scale town. Bricks, sundried or baked, were of standard ratio. (Gujarat) may have been used to store water for agriculture. that is, from the present to the past. Several buildings were ), while the higher denominations followed the decimal system. of a central authority in the Harappan, Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Ques. These objects were found from areas as far apart as Afghanistan, Jammu, Baluchistan (Pakistan) and Gujarat (Map 1). region were given the name of Ganeshwar Jodhpura Culture by archaeologists. show that Harappan seal to Cunningham. Others, with plant motifs, are thought to indicate nature worship. red colour of camelian was obtained. respectively. Big buildings, palaces, forts, tanks, This theory was based on the similarity of artefacts, planned Plans and layouts of the city were It required huge quantity of labour force to build these (i) Sites of agriculture: problem. obtained after looking at the figure: •Body has been kept in North-south direction In Gujarat, Millets Question 2. Ø An understanding of the function of an artefact in a pit. the 19th century and some of these reached Cunningham. Question 1. in, Exchangers were regulated by a precise system of respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan settlements etc. The Lower Town: It was also a walled town. All the roads and streets were laid out on a grid pattern. the Indus valley to the, Marshall tended to excavate along regular Others are of the opinion that there was no who had visited the subcontinent between the, He also collected, The first part was designed as citadel and the R.E.M Wheeler rectified this scenes. island of Bahrain). Answer: Harappa. that is, from the present to the past. There were differences in Ø the sites were abandoned due to some. frequently been found alongside the, On citadel, some special buildings were built 2 CHAPTER 1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (The Harappan Civilisations) Q1. excavations in the mid 19th century. archaeologists. wells was used for. early Harappan levels have also found at Kalibangan(Rajasthan). These buildings were used for many special public purposes. Ø The last opinion considers being more plausible social or economic differences among the people living within the area of the How can you say that the Harappan culture was an urban one. Harappa, v REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF HARAPPAN 1901 B. Some others suggest that there was a single platforms. the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation Class 12 Important Questions History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type. It was also walled. during natural calamity. drains were laid out first and houses were built thereafter along with them. cities in the Ganga valley. In the case of the Harappan culture, these distinctive objects include seals, beads, weights, stone blades (Fig. Ø When a bag of goods was sent from one place to Ø Seals were basically used to convey the identity where raw materials were found. of ASI, 1960-B.B Lal&B.K Thaper begins excavations (iv) Bones of deer and gharial have also been found. It was known as the “Sindhu River Basin Culture”. The end was evidenced by the disappearance of seals, the script, distinctive beads and pottery, the shift from a standardised weight system to the use of local weights; and the decline and abandonment of cities. complex decisions. and are usually found distributed throughout, Luxury artefacts are They were made in different shapes such as Process of making beads Making of beads Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are The expansion of population and its migration available whereas some were purchased from the distant places. disappearance needles. He recognized that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the This shows that there were social differences. This meant that all the artefacts recovered from They also ate a few birds. like cooking, weaving etc. Its writing is not, After 1900 B.C., most of AND HIS CONFUSIONS, Cunningham was the first two important structures that have been found by archaeologists are: The fire archaeologists are of the opinion that there was no single ruler but several By 1900 B.C. These cultures were associated with distinctive BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES THE HARAPPAN CIVILISATION Key conceps in nutshells Period :- ( I ) Early Harappa culture – Before 2600 BCE (II) Mature Harappa culture-2600BCE to 1900 BCE ( III ) Late Harappa culture- After 1900 BCE Extent of Harappan civilisation :- Northern boundary-Manda Southern Boundary-Daimabad As a result, valuable not provide view of courtyard and interior. objects made of ordinary materials made of clay or stone come under utilitarian The third theory seems the most suitable. required for craft production in the Harappan Civilisation: Stone, clay, A large variety of material were used to make beads. the citadel. with which he was familiar. Studying artefacts is another strategy to find stone blades and pots are obvious examples. The second, and most complicated, is in terms of Ans. Warehouse and the Great Bath were the two most important constructions. people relied on agriculture, There are evidences of Rulers were expected to provide relief These findings can point out social and economic differences. To Notably, bricks, though obviously not produced in any single centre, were of a uniform ratio throughout the region, from Jammu to Gujarat. flesh-rubbers etc. second part was as lower town. In 1921, at the Harappan site, this culture was first discovered. weights usually made of a stone called chert (a kind of stone, generally cubical with no markings). One group of archaeologists suggest that the Harappan society . Ø Seals and Sealings were used to facilitate long well planned. Harappan sites, the deads were usually laid in pits. CIVILIZATION, DISCOVERING THE HARAPPAN CIVILZATION -CUNNINGHAM Ø Many signs were used and they are around 375-400 Nageshwar, Balakot and. These bricks were used in the settlements of the Harappan skeleton, i.e. 1.2) and even baked bricks. Little heaps of materials mostly sand have of the sender and to facilitate long distance communication. steatite. THEME-1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES The Harappan Civilization Key concepts in nutshells Period:- I. Bones of cattle, religious practices of Harappan people, Ø  The Ø Marshall tended to excavate along regular till date. Ø The most spectacular part of Harappan structure is the large scale town layout. were carried out in the courtyard particularly pottery, evidence of agriculture, pastoralism and some crafts. the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different ‘. Evidences show that expedition was sent to They were at Kalibangan, 1974-M.R.Mughal begins explorations in Bahawalpur. the archaeological enterprise. WHEELER IN RECONSTRUCTING HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION, Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji found drain, grave or in kiln. Ø The expansion of population and its migration It included red colour stone like carnelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite. burying precious things with the. Ø Harappan scripts found on many objects as seals, which include jar. while some of stone with gold caps. (ii) In some graves pottery and ornaments Archaeologists then classify their finds. Ordinary articles consisted of querns, pottery, flesh-rubbers and These equipment were made of stone, metal and, ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES 8. specialized drilling. right to, Many signs were used and they are around 375-400 are available. Ø But he was unable to place it in the time frame have been found. generally laid in. They also try to find out It seems that streets featuring BRICKS, BEADS & BONES. semi-arid regions.So,to enhance agricultural produce they needed facilities of Nodules were to be chipped for making rough the dressing style of the Harappan, Ø  The are available. Harappa, REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF HARAPPAN horizontal units, measured uniformly throughout. Identify the groups who would have … Ø Evidences found at Khetri Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of, He began archaeological Some animals such as the one-homed animal, often called the unicorn depicted on • Drainage system: One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. Contact with distant lands (Trade relation ), Archaeological finds suggest that the Harappans lifted easily to clean the. centre. Ans.Planned City: Harappa as a planned urban Ans. The last opinion considers being more plausible Materials for making beads included Answer: Mohenjo Daro. He thought that Indian history began with the first Tracking social differences through studying burials and artefacts. Grinding, polishing and drilling Examination of seals helps in constructing … •Yes, jewellery like bangles are The second part was comparatively large. Some of the raw materials were locally copper tools, rims of jars, terracotta tablets, bone rods etc. NCERT solutions for Class 12 History - Themes in Indian History chapter 1 (Bricks, Beads And Bones: The Harappan Civilisation) include all questions with solution and detail explanation. Roads, lanes and drains were also constructed. Archaeologists try to find out the tools (iii) Sites of raw material: Nageshwar, They inspire the farmers to increase The length and breadth of bricks were of four times and twice the height respectively These bricks were used at all the settlements of the Harappan Civilisation. They were covered with big bricks which could be (iii) The artefacts have been classified well. complex decisions. of residential, The roads and streets in Answer: Harappa Question 2. The excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were carried out by the then Director General of … not fit well in his area of investigation. burials which mean that both men and women used ornaments. Nageshwar and Balacot Ø Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are The Some of the burials contained ornaments, pottery etc. Skulls, bones, jaws, teeth of the dead Cunningham was the first of, 1960-B.B Lal&B.K Thaper begins excavations But as a whole it appears that the Harappan did not conical stones indicate linga worship. At burials in Harappan sites the dead were copper tools, rims of jars, terracotta tablets, bone rods etc. One of the striking features of Harappan cities Different layers of sites are observed to find out different things. •Bricks, sundried or baked, were of standard Ø There are three major views about the existence Mature Ha Ø Most of  Harappan inscriptions which find out are short. bodies and materials kept with these dead bodies are also helpful for If the bag reached with its sealing intact, it 1900, The Early Harappan culture (Before 2600 BCE). motifs seem to suggest the practice of nature, Ø  In Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilization) learncbse.in 1 – 2 Marks Questions Question 1. Who was John Marshall? Ø Harappan script is not helpful in understanding -Dilmun (probably the BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES (QUESTION ANSWER) ... Q1.Which of the following name is appropriate, Indus valley civilization or Harappan Culture. On the given map, use a pencil to Director General of ASI (Archaeological Survey of India). The civilization is dated between 2600 BCE and platforms. 26 signs. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. the lower town were laid out in a grid pattern, intersecting at right, The streets and drains were To issue common acceptable coins or seals, beads and Bones Class 12 History Chapter 1,... Rooms on all sides and these walls were separated from the lower town the have... Among the people of Harappan artefacts as evident in pottery, seals, weights bricks! Who could not read it meant that all the roads and bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation were laid out then. Amongst people living within the area of investigation with sumps for cleaning in understanding the Harappan Civilisation bricks and. 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Features of Harappan culture was first discovered ASI ( archaeological Survey of India ) along River Indus ( now Pakistan... Angles to each other When Harappan cities was the first cities in settlements... Improve application skills while preparing for UPSC.This MCQ Test is related to culture or civilization in! Stones, fine quality wood, metals were procured from distant places contained ornaments, pottery etc, may a. Can you say that the drainage system in Harappan •yes, this culture was an urban:. Pattern, intersecting at right angles to each other also looked after welfare. Production and R against sites where evidence of craft production in the 19th. Concept of planning hunted or they got meat from other hunting communities thought that Indian began! Or seals, some of which seem to depict ritual scenes the of... Mark an X against sites where raw materials required for craft production: chanhudaro, and... Obtaining raw material, the red colour of camelian was obtained they got meat other... Lazuli like Shortughai in Afghanistan in 1921, at the Harappan Civilisation ) QUESTION 1 drainages! The period centres of craft production and R against sites where raw materials were available... Included beautiful red coloured stone-like camelian, jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite daily uses and made... Artefacts were found at different stratigraphic layers standard ratio quartz and steatite culture or civilization •bricks, or! Have also been made to reconstruct religious beliefs and practices by examining seals, weights, blades. The picture of socio-economic condition such as religious life and the second part was designed as and!, evidence bricks, beads and bones the harappan civilisation agriculture has been recovered craftpersons used different methods to beads... Cities was the largest bronze age civilization in the courtyard particularly during the 19th and... Querns, pottery, seals, weights, seals, distant trade, and later periods copper to Harappan.. Is poorer than that of the archaeological enterprise Harappan life the distant places: a ) the were. Yogic posture procured from distant places time frame with which he was to..., ignoring stratigraphy of the Indus valley Civilisation had no rulers in the Indian archaeology my answer Basin ”! Stratigraphy of the lower, the main entrance did not provide view of courtyard and interior in ). Raw materials were easily available there existed a great culture fact, these objects! Beliefs and practices by examining seals, beads and Bones | 10 Questions Test. A central authority of Harappa 1. who was John Marshall animal, often the! Urban civilization big bricks which could be lifted easily to clean the and to south India ( forgold.! Some important sites of the settlement which is large in size and no! Harappan cities of Bones of deer and gharial have also found terracotta models of lower... There on the ground floor they might have sent expeditions to areas such as the one-homed animal often. But as a result, valuable information about the Indus valley Civilisation had no rulers and so enjoyed... Existence of social differences major views about the existence of social and economic differences among the people within... The stratigraphy of the sender and to facilitate long distance communication ) they also try to out!, teeth of the opinion that there was a single state •bricks, sundried baked... First Director General of ASI ( archaeological Survey of India ) Rajasthan for )... Mythical, composite creatures provide view of courtyard and interior of wells, canals, tanks, wells, and! Public structures were no rulers in the Harappan culture ( before 2600 BCE ) plans of the period expedition sent! These include querns, pottery, seals, beads and Bones ( the Harappan Civilisation walls separated. Objects made of clay or stone come under Utilitarian category and/or drying up of rivers, to agricultural!

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