This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 11:24. Between ages 11-19, Rudolf lived in Spain at the court of his uncle, Philip II of Spain, and returned to Vienna with a Spanish demeanor which pleased his mother. Maximilian was born in Vienna, Austria, the eldest son of the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand I, younger brother of Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Jagiellonian princess Anne of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547). After taking control, Maximilian instituted immediate financial reform. children: Duchess of Savoy, Margaret of Austria, Philip I of Castile In 1508, Maximilian, with the assent of Pope Julius II, took the title Erwählter Römischer Kaiser ("Elected Roman Emperor"), thus ending the centuries-old custom that the Holy Roman Emperor had to be crowned by the Pope. At times pious, at other times antipapal, he thought he might win financial help from the German church if he were a rival pope, but in the end he let himself be dissuaded from this by Ferdinand II (the Catholic) of Aragon. 221-222, Claims that he gained the imperial crown through bribery have been refuted. H. Wiesflecker, Kaiser Maximilian I, vol. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The new organ proved politically weak, and its power returned to Maximilian in 1502. [10] This brought him into a potential conflict with Maximilian, who on 16 March 1494 had married Bianca Maria Sforza, a daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, duke of Milan. He had ruled jointly with his father for … Meanwhile in Austria, Emperor Frederick III and his antagonist Louis XI France battle over said marriage prospects, battles ensue, tragedy falls. World Book Encyclopedia, Field Enterprises Educational Corporation, 1976. It emphasized the details in the shaping of the metal itself, rather than the etched or gilded designs popular in the Milanese style. These political marriages were summed up in the following Latin elegiac couplet: Bella gerant aliī, tū fēlix Austria nūbe/ Nam quae Mars aliīs, dat tibi regna Venus, "Let others wage war, but thou, O happy Austria, marry; for those kingdoms which Mars gives to others, Venus gives to thee. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor 18. Unusually for his time, he opposed capital punishment and abolished it in Tuscany in 1786 during his rule there, making it the first nation in modern history to do so. Despite Louis's death in 1483, shortly after Margaret arrived in France, she remained at the French court. [16][17][18], However, Charles and his sister wanted her inheritance for France. Until Maximilian I in 1508, the emperor-elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the pope before assuming the imperial title. Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. [13] The local rulers wanted more independence from the Emperor and a strengthening of their own territorial rule. He was born, raised, and educated in Spain, and did not learn German when he … To oppose Venice, Maximilian entered into the League of Cambrai with France, Spain, and the pope in 1508. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). German History (2001) 19#1 pp 1–27, Maximilian I. Excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Ed. [10], In 1501, Maximilian fell from his horse and badly injured his leg, causing him pain for the rest of his life. His father, Frederick III, named him for an obscure saintwhom Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. He was also the natural candidate of the electors to succeed his grandfather as Holy Roman Emperor. Some historians have suggested that Maximilian was "morbidly" depressed: from 1514, he travelled everywhere with his coffin. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459. Heinz-Dieter Heimann: Die Habsburger. He strengthened his European position by an agreement with France, and he regained prestige within the empire by victories in a dynastic war between Bavaria and the Rhenish Palatinate (1504). Author of. After the death of king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, the Habsburgs were able to occupy the Austrian territories without military conflict. In 1513, with Henry VIII of England, Maximilian won an important victory at the battle of the Spurs against the French, stopping their advance in northern France. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. The wedding between Maximilian and Mary took place on 19 August 1477. He ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter's reign, from c. 1483 until his father's death in 1493. Maximilian had appointed his daughter Margaret as both Regent of the Netherlands and the guardian and educator of his grandsons Charles and Ferdinand (their father, Philip, having predeceased Maximilian), and she fulfilled this task well. Vladislas II of Bohemia and Hungary 21. His Garter stall plate survives in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[52]. These marriages assured him of the succession in Spain and the control of the Spanish colonies. etc. Maximilian allied himself with the pope, Spain, Venice, and Milan in the so-called Holy League (1495) to drive out the French, who were conquering Naples. The Treaty of Senlis (1493) ended the conflict against the Netherlands and France and left the duchy of Burgundy and the Low Countries securely in the possession of the house of Habsburg. [20][21][22], Margaret then remained in France as a hostage of sorts until 1493, when she was finally returned to her father with the signing of the Treaty of Senlis. [39] At first, this policy seemed successful, and Maximilian managed to secure the votes from Mainz, Cologne, Brandenburg and Bohemia for his grandson Charles V. The death of Maximilian in 1519 seemed to put the succession at risk, but in a few months the election of Charles V was secured. [43][44] He referred to these projects as Gedechtnus ("memorial"),[44][45] which included a series of stylised autobiographical works: the epic poems Theuerdank and Freydal, and the chivalric novel Weisskunig, both published in editions lavishly illustrated with woodcuts. [42] Much of the work was done in his lifetime, but it was not completed until decades later. See also [1], 16th century Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. On January 12, 1519, having spent the previous year trying to have his grandson Charles elected emperor and to raise a European coalition against the Turks, he died at Wels in Upper Austria. Maximilian was elected King of the Romans on 16 February 1486 in Frankfurt-am-Main at his father's initiative and crowned on 9 April 1486 in Aachen. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Maximilian-I-Holy-Roman-emperor, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Maximilian I, The Famous People - Biography of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Luminarium Encyclopedia - Biography of Maximilian I, The Baldwin Project - Biography of MAXIMILIAN I, Aeiou Encycloprdia - Biography of Maximilian I, lord chancellor Berthold, archbishop of Mainz. In the war that followed, Maximilian was labelled an unreliable partner because of his lack of funds and troops. mother: Eleanor of Portugal, Eleanor of Portugal, Holy Roman Empress, Holy Roman Empress. Maximilian also gave a bizarre jousting helmet as a gift to King Henry VIII – the helmet's visor features a human face, with eyes, nose and a grinning mouth, and was modelled after the appearance of Maximilian himself. At the time, the Dukes of Burgundy, a cadet branch of the French royal fa… His intricate system of alliances, embracing both central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula, made Maximilian a potent force in European affairs. [citation needed], Maximilian I was a member of the Order of the Garter, nominated by King Henry VII of England in 1489. Using Burgundian institutions as a model, he attempted to create a unified state. Elected king of Romans in 1486, he declared himself elected Holy Roman emperor in 1508. At Guinegate the Landsknechte showed their mettle and would vie with the Swiss Reisläufer for primacy on the battlefield for more than a century. Elisabeth (d. 1581/1584), wife of Ludwig III von der Marck, Count of Rochefort. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. He was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky. Through marriage of his son Philip the Handsome to eventual queen Joanna of Castile in 1498, Maximilian helped to establish the Habsburg dynasty in Spain, which allowed his grandson Charles to hold the thrones of both Castile and Aragon.[2]. The Archduke of Austria Maximilian I was hostile to France and Venice, and desired to descend in Italy in order to obtain the Papal coronation as Holy Roman Emperor. [6][10] However, Maximilian was unable to hinder the French from taking over Milan. [33][34] Both Anne and Louis were adopted by Maximilian following the death of Ladislaus. [citation needed], Maximilian was a keen supporter of the arts and sciences, and he surrounded himself with scholars such as Joachim Vadian and Andreas Stoberl (Stiborius), promoting them to important court posts. [38] However, the bribery claims have been challenged. Under the terms of Margaret's betrothal, she was sent to Louis to be brought up under his guardianship. (His magnificent tomb at the Hofkirche in Innsbruck was completed later.) [41] Although he is buried in the Castle Chapel at Wiener Neustadt, an extremely elaborate cenotaph tomb for Maximilian is in the Hofkirche, Innsbruck, where the tomb is surrounded by statues of heroes from the past. He was named after his great-grandfather, Emperor Maximilian I. The princes would permit no strengthening of the central authority, and this limitation of power neutralized imperial policies. His mother was Eleonora of Portugal (1434-1467), daughter of Edward, King of Portugal. Francis of Austria, who died shortly after his birth in 1481. Leopold II (Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria from 1790 to 1792, and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. [3] The young prince was an excellent hunter, his favorite hobby was hunting for birds as a horse archer. Maximilian I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, of Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, etc. Credit arrangements with southern German business firms, such as the Fuggers, assured Maximilian of funds for foreign and domestic needs, and a campaign against Hungary in 1506 strengthened the Habsburg claim to the Hungarian throne. Isabella I of Castile 2. After Mary's death in a riding accident on 27 March 1482 near the Wijnendale Castle, Maximilian's aim was now to secure the inheritance to his and Mary's son, Philip the Handsome. [5], The Duchy of Burgundy was also claimed by the French crown under Salic Law,[6] with Louis XI of France vigorously contesting the Habsburg claim to the Burgundian inheritance by means of military force. His father was Frederick III (1415-1493), Holy Roman Emperor in 1440, and Archduke of Austria in 1456. Maximilian was always troubled by financial shortcomings; his income never seemed to be enough to sustain his large-scale goals and policies. In 1496, Maximilian issued a decree which expelled all Jews from Styria and Wiener Neustadt. Maximilian I was a member of the Habsburg Dynasty. Mary tried to bypass this rule with a promise to transfer territories as a gift in case of her death, but her plans were confounded. Maximilian had no choice but to agree to a peace treaty signed on 22 September 1499 in Basel that granted the Swiss Confederacy independence from the Holy Roman Empire. The son of Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy, Philip was less than four years old when his mother died, and upon her death, he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands. His plans did come to fruition when his grandson, already king of Spain, became emperor as Charles V later the same year. The Swiss won a decisive victory against the Empire in the Battle of Dornach on 22 July 1499. At the end of Maximilian's rule, the Habsburgs' mountain of debt totalled six million gulden, corresponding to a decade's worth of tax revenues from their inherited lands. [40] Maximilian died in Wels, Upper Austria, and was succeeded as Emperor by his grandson Charles V, his son Philip the Handsome having died in 1506. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. His parents were staunch Catholics. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. More important were the marriages of his son Philip to the Spanish infanta Joan (the Mad), in the same year, and of his daughter Margaret to the Spanish crown prince, in 1497. In 1499/1500 he conquered it and drove the Sforza regent Lodovico il Moro into exile. 20 January 1612: Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, died On 18 July 15... 52, Rudolf was born to the future Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor, and Maria of Spain. MAXIMILIAN I (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) (1459 – 1519; ruled 1493 – 1519). H.J. Through the archduke Sigismund, his cousin, Maximilian obtained the Tirol. In order to symbolize his new wealth and power, he built the Golden Roof, a canopy overlooking the town center of Innsbruck, from which to watch the festivities celebrating his assumption of rule over Tyrol. Much of Austria was under Hungarian rule, as a result of the Austrian-Hungarian War (1477-1488). The Treaty of Brussels granted Milan to the French and Verona to the Venetians, leaving Maximilian with only the territorial boundaries of Tirol. See more ideas about roman emperor, emperor, holy roman empire. Maximilian was the eldest son of the emperor Frederick III and Eleanor of Portugal. After Mary’s death (1482) Maximilian was forced to allow the States General (representative assembly) of the Netherlands to act as regent for his infant son Philip (later Philip I [the Handsome] of Castile), but, having defeated the States General in war, he reacquired control of the regency in 1485. There was also a consensus that deep reforms were needed to preserve the unity of the Empire. In her search of alliances to protect her domain from neighboring interests, she betrothed Maximilian I in 1490. He was, however, related to the Habsburgs both by blood and by marriage. Turning away from his French alliance, he entered into a new Holy League (1511) with the pope, Spain, England, and their allies. The French were victorious in Italy at the Battle of Marignano in 1515, and Maximilian’s efforts to re-win Milan failed miserably. He ruled jointly with his father for the last ten years of the latter’s reign, from c. 1483 to his father’s … In order to surround France, Maximilian in 1490 married Duchess Anne of Brittany by proxy but could not forestall an invasion of Brittany by the French. Maximilian was born in Vienna, Austria, the eldest son of the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand I, younger brother of Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Jagiellonianprincess Anne of Bohemia and Hungary(1503–1547). Upon the death of his grandfather – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor – on January 12, 1519, Charles went on to inherit the Austrian territories controlled by the House of Hapsburg, thus he became Charles I of Austria. Emperor Friedrich III of Holy Roman Empire 1415-1493; Princess Leonor Of Portugal 1436-1467 Spouses and children. In his infancy, he and his parents were besieged in Vienna by Albert of Austria. The situation in Italy was not the only problem Maximilian had at the time. In 1488 he was taken captive and held for more than three months in Brugge, where he watched from his window as several of his companions were executed. This was not very successful, but one of the lasting results was the creation of three different subdivisions of the Austrian lands: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, and Vorderösterreich.[10]. As the Treaty of Senlis had resolved French differences with the Holy Roman Empire, King Louis XII of France had secured borders in the north and turned his attention to Italy, where he made claims for the Duchy of Milan. His campaigns in Italy were not as successful, and his progress there was quickly checked. [14][15], Dying shortly after signing the Treaty of Le Verger, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, left his realm to his daughter Anne. Cohn, "Did Bribes Induce the German Electors to Choose Charles V as Emperor in 1519?" Their aim was to partition the Republic of Venice. At the same time, the death of Berthold of Mainz rid him of one of his main opponents. MAXIMILIAN I (HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE) (1459 – 1519; ruled 1493 – 1519), Holy Roman emperor. Casimir IV Jagiellon 10. By his marriage in 1477 to Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold , duke of Burgundy , Maximilian acquired the vast Burgundian possessions in the Netherlands and along the eastern frontier of France . Because of its favourable situation politically as well as its silver mines, its chief city, Innsbruck, became his favourite centre of operations. He successfully defended his new domains against the attacks of Louis XI of France, defeating the French at the Battle of Guinegate in 1479. of requiring a Papal coronation for the adoption of the Imperial title. Updates? His father, Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, named him for an obscure saint, Maximilian of Tebessa, who Frederick believed had once warned him of imminent peril in a dream. Because Tyrol had no law code at this time, the nobility freely expropriated money from the populace, which caused the royal palace in Innsbruck to fester with corruption. At the same time, the French moved back into Italy, in cooperation with Spain, and occupied the imperial fief of Milan. Maximilian Friedrich von Amberg (1511–1553), Lord of Feldkirch. "[36], Maximilian's policies in Italy had been unsuccessful, and after 1517 Venice reconquered the last pieces of their territory. In response, he assumed control of Tyrol and its debt. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459. Aug 30, 2015 - Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519). Banning of Jewish literature and expulsion of Jews. [46] It also sports a pair of curled ram's horns, brass spectacles, and even etched beard stubble. Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor 20. [8][9] Maximilian continued to govern Mary's remaining inheritance in the name of Philip the Handsome. They even considered deposing him, but the plan miscarried because of their own apathy and Maximilian’s effective countermeasures. He then became a candidate for the vacant Hungarian throne. At a meeting of the Reichstag (Imperial Diet) at Worms in 1495, Maximilian sought to strengthen the empire. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459. Corrections? After the regency ended, Maximilian and Charles VIII of France exchanged these two territories for Burgundy and Picardy in the Treaty of Senlis (1493). By 1490 he had regained control of most of his family’s traditional territories in Austria, which had been seized by Hungary. Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519), the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky. Maximilian also suffered from the differences between his parents, whose characters were at complete variance with one another. French armies consisted primarily of the prized and formidable Swiss Reisläufer, mercenary units that have survived in the modern era as the Swiss Guards. [43] In this vein, he commissioned a series of three monumental woodblock prints: The Triumphal Arch (1512–18, 192 woodcut panels, 295 cm wide and 357 cm high – approximately 9'8" by 11'8½"); and a Triumphal Procession (1516–18, 137 woodcut panels, 54 m long), which is led by a Large Triumphal Carriage (1522, 8 woodcut panels, 1½' high and 8' long), created by artists including Albrecht Dürer, Albrecht Altdorfer and Hans Burgkmair. Maximilian was born at Wiener Neustadt on 22 March 1459. Pope Julius’s severe illness prompted Maximilian to consider accepting the office of pope, which the schismatic Council of Pisa offered him. In 1500 the imperial princes at the Reichstag in Augsburg withdrew considerable power from Maximilian and invested it in the Reichsregiment, a supreme council of 21 electors, princes, and others. Maximilian entered Vienna without siege in 1490. Mary of Burgundy 4. Charles was a member of the House of Wittelsbach, thus his reign as Holy Roman Emperor marked the end of three centuries of uninterrupted Habsburg imperial rule. His grandson succeeded to the vast Habsburg realm and the imperial crown as Charles V. Maximilian was the eldest son of the emperor Frederick III and Eleanor of Portugal. father: Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor. A new tax was launched to finance it, the Gemeine Pfennig, though its collection was never fully successful. He created the Landsknechte (“Servants of the Country”), a body of well-organized mercenaries, and fought a series of wars against the French, mostly in Italy. Flemish rebels managed to capture Philip and even Maximilian himself, but they were defeated when Frederick III intervened. Britannica now has a site just for parents! He defeated the candidacies of Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, Francis I of France, and Henry VIII of England. The flourishing culture of the Low Countries influenced literature, art, government, politics, and military methods in all the other Habsburg possessions. Omissions? He added vast lands to the traditional Austrian holdings, securing the Netherlands by his own marriage, Hungary and Bohemia by treaty and military pressure, and Spain and the Spanish empire by the marriage of his son Philip. In 1490, the two nations demanded that Maximilian I step in to mediate the dispute. One source relates that, during the siege's bleakest days, the young prince would wander about the castle garrison, begging the servants and men-at-arms for bits of bread . Thus a large part of the Netherlands (known as the Seventeen Provinces) stayed in the Habsburg patrimony.[6]. By unknown mistress (parentage uncertain): Guielma, wife of Rudiger (Rieger) von Westernach. Charles VIII’s invasion of Italy (1494) upset the European balance of power. Charles VII (7 April 1697 – 20 January 1745) was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745. In 1486 he was elected king of the Romans (heir to his father, the emperor) and crowned at Aachen on April 9. His goal was to secure the throne for a member of his house and prevent Francis I of France from gaining the throne; the resulting "election campaign" was unprecedented due to the massive use of bribery. Though he was the German king, he had not been crowned emperor by the pope, as was customary. After the death of his paternal grandfather, Maximilian, in 1519, he inherited the Habsburg Monarchy. Emeritus Professor of Austrian History, University of Graz, Austria. Maximilian began to focus entirely on the question of his succession. Rise to the title of Holy Roman Emperor. 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